These biotic reef types take on additional names depending upon how the reef lies in relation to the land, if any. Reef types include fringing reef, barrier reefs, as well as atolls. A fringing reef is a reef that is attached to an island. A barrier reef forms a calcareous barrier around an island resulting in a lagoon between the shore and the reef. An atoll is a ring reef with no land present. The reef front (ocean side) is a high energy locale whereas the internal lagoon will be at a lower energy with fine grained sediments.
The Caribbean reef shark has an interdorsal ridge from the rear of the first dorsal fin to the front of the second dorsal fin. The second dorsal fin has a very short free rear tip. The snout of C. perezi is moderately short and broadly rounded. It has poorly developed, low anterior nasal flaps and relatively large circular eyes. Caribbean reef sharks also have moderately long gill slits with the third gill slit lying above the origin of the pectoral fin. Comparison to similar sharks:
Socially, they are mostly loners unless living in a threatening ecosystem. These are the first and the only species of sharks that are known to “sleep” on the ocean floor or within reef caves. It is believed that these sharks are not actually sleeping but merely resting. These sharks have actually been given the nickname “sleeping sharks” because of their habit of lying motionless at the sea bottom. This is a somewhat unusual and unique behavior of these sharks.
The Caribbean reef shark is a viviparous species, meaning its developing embryos are nourished via a placental connection. The litters average four to six pups. Although this shark’s reproduction has not been studied in the northern hemisphere, but to the south, parturition occurs during the Amazon summer of November to December. Pregnant females are often found to have biting scars from males on the sides of their bodies, due to the aggressive behaviors of males during mating. Gestation is believed to take approximately one year. A pregnant female with biting scars and wounds on the sides of her body, taken off the coast of north-northeastern Brazil, carried four near-term embryos. One was a 27.5 in. (700 mm) long male and three were females measuring 27.0 in. (685 mm), 27.4 in. (697 mm), and 27.7 in. (704 mm) in length. Because she was carrying near-term embryos, it is postulated that this area may be a pupping ground. Although such captures have shed light on the topic, relatively little is known about the reproduction of the Caribbean reef shark. Much information has been obtained from a pregnant female carrying four near-term embryos off the coast of northeastern Brazil. This female had scars and wounds on her side. Because the shark carried near-term embryos, it is postulated that this area may be a pupping ground.

The small shark is named for its distinct black-tipped fins. Not to be confused with the blacktip shark, a larger species with similar fin coloration, the blacktip reef shark can be found in shallow inshore waters throughout the Indo-Pacific, including coral reefs, reef flats and near drop offs. It may be seen in mangrove areas and even freshwater environments near to shore, moving in and out with the tide. The blacktip reef shark feeds primarily on fish, including many common reef fishes, but will also consume crustaceans, mollusks, and even snakes!


Caribbean reef sharks are sometimes seen resting motionless on the sea floor or inside caves; it is the first active shark species in which such a behavior was reported. In 1975, Eugenie Clark investigated the famed "sleeping sharks" inside the caves at Isla Mujeres off the Yucatan Peninsula, and determined that the sharks were not actually asleep as their eyes would follow divers. Clark speculated that freshwater upwellings inside the caves might loosen parasites on the sharks and produce an enjoyable "narcotic" effect.[8] If threatened, Caribbean reef sharks sometimes perform a threat display, in which they swim in a short, jerky fashion with frequent changes in direction and repeated, brief (1–1.2 second duration) drops of the pectoral fins. This display is less pronounced than the better-known display of the grey reef shark (C. amblyrhynchos).[8][9]
The Black-tip Shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus) is a species of shark of the family Carcharhinidae, easily identified by the black tips of its fins, especially on the first dorsal fin and the caudal fin. It is one of the most abundant sharks in the tropical coral reefs of the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. This species prefers shallow coastal waters and frequently exposes its first dorsal fin in these areas. Most Black-tipped Sharks live on reef margins and sandy bottoms, but they are also known to support brackish or freshwater environments. This species generally reaches a length of 1.6 m. Black-tip Sharks are sedentary and live in very small areas and may remain in the same area for several years. They are active predators of small bone fish, cephalopods and crustaceans, and are also known to feed on marine snakes and seabirds. The data collected concerning the life cycle of the Black-tip Shark are sometimes contradictory and there appear to be significant differences depending on the geographical location within the range of the species. Like other members of its family, this shark is viviparous and females give birth to between two and five young babies every two years, every year or sometimes twice a year. Indeed, according to its habitat the gestation period of this shark can be 7-9 months, 10-11 months or 16 months. Newborns live in coastal waters and in shallower waters than adults, often forming large groups in areas flooded by high tides. Shy and capricious, the Black-tip Shark is difficult to approach and rarely represents a danger to humans, unless it is excited by food. However, bathers in shallow waters can sometimes have their legs bitten by mistake. This shark is fished for its meat, fins and liver oil, but is not considered to be a commercially important species. The International Union for Conservation of Nature assessed the near threatened species. Although the species as a whole remains widespread and relatively common, overfishing of this shark and its slow rate of reproduction has led to its decline in a number of localities.
The Caribbean Reef Shark is known to become aggressive in the presence of food, but they are mostly only considered dangerous to humans because of its size. This shark was fished in Belize for almost the entire 20th century. They were used to make local delicacies in addition to liver oil (mostly used in cosmetics). Their low reproduction rate combined with a high level of hunting and fishing have caused the numbers to dwindle. The shark is now considered to be near threatened. Many countries and organizations have banned the commercial fishing of this species.
One useful definition distinguishes reefs from mounds as follows: Both are considered to be varieties of organosedimentary buildups – sedimentary features, built by the interaction of organisms and their environment, that have synoptic relief and whose biotic composition differs from that found on and beneath the surrounding sea floor. Reefs are held up by a macroscopic skeletal framework. Coral reefs are an excellent example of this kind. Corals and calcareous algae grow on top of one another and form a three-dimensional framework that is modified in various ways by other organisms and inorganic processes. By contrast, mounds lack a macroscopic skeletal framework (see stromatolite). Mounds are built by microorganisms or by organisms that don't grow a skeletal framework. A microbial mound might be built exclusively or primarily by cyanobacteria. Excellent examples of biostromes formed by cyanobacteria occur in the Great Salt Lake in Utah, and in Shark Bay on the coast of Western Australia.
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